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[Beginner] Week 11

ADULT BEGINNER


Lesson Summary 5-15


마지막 수업이 끝났어요. But don't forget you have a celebration next Sunday at KAAM Center!

Please see below for the last lesson's summary:


1. Characteristics of Korean present tense verbs

- Present, progressive, near future (저는 한글학교에 다녀요, 저는 지금 한국어를 공부해요, 저는 내일 한글학교에 가요.)

- General truths & things that occur regularly (운동하면 건강해요. 저는 매일 운동해요.)

- Making suggestions (같이 밥 먹어요. 같이 얘기해요.)


2. -아요 ending verbs in the present tense

- If the last syllable of the verb stem has 'ㅏ' or 'ㅗ' as a vowel and ends in a final consonant, add -아요 to form the present tense (ex. 살다 = 살+아요 = 살아요)

- ㅏ+아=ㅏ with no final consonant (ex. 가다 = 가요)

- ㅗ+아=ㅗ아 or 와 with no final consonant (ex. 보다 = 보아요/봐요)

- ㅅ irregulars to take out ㅅ받침 (ex. 낫다 = 나아요)


3. -어요 ending verbs in the present tense

- If the last syllable of the verb stem as the rest vowels than 'ㅏ' and 'ㅗ', add -어요 to form the present tense (ex. 먹다 = 먹+어요 = 먹어요)

- ㅓ+어=ㅓ with no final consonant (ex. 서다=서요)

- ㅕ+어=ㅕ with no final consonant (ex. 켜다=켜요)

- ㅡ+어=ㅓ with no final consonant (ex. 끄다=꺼요)

- ㅐ+어=ㅐ어 or ㅐ with no final consonant (ex. 보내다=보내어요/보내요)

- ㅔ+어=ㅔ어 or ㅔ with no final consonant (ex. 세다=세어요/세요)

- ㅜ+어=ㅜ어 or ㅝ with no final consonant (ex. 주다=주어요/줘요)

- ㅣ+어=ㅣ어 or ㅕ with no final consonant (ex. 기다리다=기다리어요/기다려요)

- ㅚ+어=ㅚ어 or ㅙ with no final consonant (ex. 되다=되어요/돼요)

- ㅅ irregulars to take out ㅅ받침 (ex. 잇다 = 이어요)

4. Differences between action verbs and descriptive verbs

- Descriptive verbs = adjectives

- Action verbs usually come with object markers (ex. 책을 읽어요) and descriptive verbs usually come with topic markers or subject markers (ex. 날씨가 더워요. 나는 더워요.)

- ex. 좋다 vs 좋아하다 (ex. 날씨가 좋아요 vs 나는 이 날씨를 좋아해요)


5. Verbs in the past tense

- Take a verb in the present tense form, take out 요 at the end and add ㅆ받침 어요 (ex. 먹다 - 먹어요 - 먹어 - 먹었어요)

6. Verbs in the future tense

- Take a verb in the original form, take out 다 at the end and add ㄹ받침 거예요 if the last syllable of the verb stem ends in a vowel (ex. 가다 - 갈 거예요) and add 을 거예요 if the last syllable of the verb stem ends in a consonant (ex. 먹다 - 먹을 거예요)

- Irregular rule #1: ㄷ받침 on the last syllable changes to ㄹ받침 and add 을 거예요 (ex. 걷다 - 걸을 거예요)

- Irregular rule #2: ㅂ받침 on the last syllable of the verb stem will be taken out and add 울 거예요 (ex. 눕다 - 누울 거예요)

- Irregular rule #3: if there is ㄹ받침 on the last syllable of the verb stem, take out 다 at the end and add 거예요 (ex. 울다 - 울 거예요)

Thank you for your hard work!

Have a happy summer break!

감사합니다. Jane Kim

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