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[Intermediate] Week 3


Lesson summary 3-6


Please see below for yesterday's lesson summary:

- Review & learn new ways of describing frequency (한두 번, 두세 번... & 두 번 이상, 다섯 번 이하...)

- Characteristics of Korean verbs in a present tense form

1. Present, progressive, near future

2. General truths & things that occur regularly

3. Making suggestions

- Review of verbs with -하다 ending changes to -해요 ending (ex. 공부하다 - 공부해요, 일하다 - 일해요...)

- -아요 ending is added when the syllable before -다 has ㅏ or ㅗ vowel and ends in a final consonant (ex. 살다 - 살아요, 닫다 - 닫아요, 좋다 - 좋아요).

- Some irregulars on -아요 ending verbs NO FINAL CONSONANTS:

1. ㅏ+ 아(요) = 아 (ex. 가다 - 가아요(X) - 가요(O))

2. ㅗ + 아 = ㅗ아 or ㅘ (ex. 보다 - 보아요 or 봐요)

3. ㅅ final consonant is taken out and add -아요 (ex. 낫다 - 낫아요 (X) - 나아요)

- add -어요 ending if the syllable before -다 has all other vowels than ㅏ & ㅗand ends with a final consonant (ex. 먹다 - 먹어요, 읽다 - 읽어요)

- Some irregulars on -어요 ending verbs NO FINAL CONSONANTS:

1. ㅓ + 어(요) = ㅓ (ex. 서다 - 서어요 (X) - 서요(O))

2. ㅕ + 어(요) = ㅕ (ex. 켜다 - 켜어요 (X) - 켜요(O))

3. ㅡ + 어(요) = ㅓ (ex. 크다 - 크어요 (X) - 꺼요 (O))

4. ㅐ+ 어(요) = ㅐ어 or ㅐ (ex. 보내다 - 보내어요 or 보내요)

5. ㅔ+ 어(요) = ㅔ어 or ㅔ (ex. 세다 - 세어요 or 세요)

6. ㅜ+ 어(요) = ㅜ어 or ㅝ (ex. 주다 - 주어요 or 줘요)

7. ㅣ + 어(요) = ㅣ어 or ㅕ (ex. 기다리다 - 기다리어요 or 기다려요)

8. ㅚ+ 어(요) = ㅚ어 or ㅙ (ex. 뵈다 - 뵈어요 or 봬요)

9. ㅅ final consonant is taken out and add -어요 (ex. 잇다 - 잇어요 (X) - 이어요)

* 웃다, 씻다, 벗다 are exceptions! We keep ㅅ 받침 (웃다 - 웃어요, 씻다 - 씻어요, 벗다 - 벗어요)

10. ㅂ final consonant is taken out and add -워요 (ex. 더럽다 - 더러워요, 어렵다 - 어려워요, 무섭다 - 무서워요)

- -을/-를 object markers: we can often leave the object marker out. (-를 when the last syllable ends in a vowel & -을 when the last syllable ends in a consonant)

- More about making suggestions using the present tense form verbs. --는/-은 어때요? (How about...?) - also making a suggestion or asking for the other person's opinion - Culture class about title - how to address other people depending on their ages and positions

Hope this helps.


Jane Kim

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